【1】半殖民地 Although China was not colonized, in effect it became a semi-colony, with foreign troops free to roam its territory
foreign companies able to establish subsidiaries with barely any taxation or duties
【2】课程改革西方化 while the educational curriculum was revised after the turn of the century to include Western disciplines.
【3】中学为体，西学为用 Until around 1900 the idea of reform was virtually always articulated within a Confucian framework – with an insistence on the distinction between Chinese ‘essence’ and Western ‘method’ (or, in the famous phrase of Zhang Zhidong (1837–1909), ‘Chinese learning for the essential principles, Western learning for the practical applications’).
【4】孙中山手里没有军队 Sun Yat-sen’s Kuomintang (or Nationalist) Party was in a very weak situation, with no troops at its command or effective state apparatus at its disposal
【5】军阀割据 After Yuan’s death in 1916, the military governors that he had installed in the provinces quarrelled and shared out China between them, with the support of various foreign powers
【6】为什么没分裂 why did China, though chronically divided, never break up 第116页
【7】没有分裂势力 But in the vast heartlands of China no such movement for separatism or independence ever acquired any serious strength.
【8】殖民整个中国太难 China’s vastness made colonizing the whole of it, or even the majority of it, a huge task
【9】印度人不厌烦外国人 this was quite different from India, for example, which learnt to accommodate the presence of the British.
【10】没有失去自信 Despite everything, the Chinese never lost their inner sense of self-confi dence – or feeling of superiority – about their own history and civilization
【11】独立、统一 it restored the independence and unity of China.87 It was Mao’s greatest single achievement
【12】西化实验失败 it could imitate the Western model, an experiment which failed badly between 1911 and 1949
【13】文化大革命 during the Maoist era was the pretext for the many top-down mass mobilizations that eventually culminated in Mao’s own assault on the Communist state in the enormously destructive Cultural Revolution
【14】资助工业革命 a prosperous agrarian sector that could generate the surpluses needed to fund industrialization
【15】经济增长 China achieved an impressive annual growth rate of 4.4 per cent between 1950 and 1980,