【1】直到1850年，伦敦才取代北京 It was not until 1850, indeed, that London was to displace Beijing as the world’s largest city 第104页
【2】商人的地位呀 Although Chinese merchants did not enjoy the same kind of independent and privileged status that they did in Britain
【3】中央集权的帝国 After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Europe was never again to be ruled, notwithstanding the ambitions of Napoleon and Hitler, by an imperial regime with the capacity to exercise centralized control over more or less the entire continent.
【4】中国的精英阶层，读书做官 the Chinese elites were absorbed by and became effectively part of the state
【5】欧洲一直有权力制衡 In Europe, by contrast, autonomous, competing elites – nobles, clerics and burghers – fought to constrain the power of the state.
【6】职业划分没有转化成独立的权力 in China the functional differentiation into scholars, peasants, merchants and tradesmen did not translate into independent bases of power or institutionalized voices.
【7】军事生活 In comparison with Japan, indeed, the military remained strikingly absent from Chinese life – at least until the early twentieth century
【8】以德治国 The Chinese state saw moral instruction, among both the common people and the elites, as both desirable in itself and also as a means of exercising social control
【9】监控不满的苗头 The same can be said of the manner in which the Chinese state, as a matter of course, engaged in surveillance of the population – by registration and other means – in order to be better able to anticipate sources of dissatisfaction and potential unrest
【10】家族 These were huge extended kinship groups, which traced their origins back to a common male ancestor
【11】道德权威 its moral authority had been seriously undermined and was never restored.
【12】传教士 missionaries were given freedom to travel in the interior;
【13】在紫禁城驻军一年 then proceeded to base itself in the Forbidden City for over a year 第112页