文科 英语

马丁·雅克Martin Jacques 当中国统治世界读书笔记

【1】中国人为什么喜欢白肤色 If you are dark, it means you work on the land and are of a lower order; such a prejudice is deeply embedded in their respective national psyches

【2】政治不同 politics is rooted in, and specific to, each culture

【3】权力性质不同 There is a profound difference between the nature of power in Western societies and East Asian societies

【4】家国情怀 Such is the power of this sense of belonging – to one’s own family, but then by extension to society, the nation and the state

【5】国家就像家庭,不是纯政治的 ,中国的国家概念,更像家的概念 The Chinese state has never been regarded in a narrowly political way, but more broadly as a source of meaning, moral behaviour and order.

【6】洋人理解不了中国的政治体系 It is difficult for Westerners to appreciate and grasp the nature of Confucian political culture because it is so different from what they are familiar with

【7】即便有选举,也跟西方不一样 Japan is regarded as democratic because it has elections and competing parties; yet the Japanese system works entirely differently from those in the West

【8】受约束 They are not hemmed in and constrained in the same manner as Western leaders

【9】照搬西方无法成功 if the process of modernization is simply a transplant then it cannot succeed

【10】强加的现代化 if a society feels that its modernity is essentially imposed – a foreign transplant – then it will be rejected and fail







文科 英语


it is through the membership of a group that an individual finds security and meaning.


正是基于此,我要把新曙光的这帮人带好。这样,我觉得比养个大胖小子有安全感的多。Not just that, so many beautiful girls are around you. 我在大明宫转,每每看到提个兜,装个戏匣子,声音还放的很大的老头,我就想,除了医院的护士小姐姐,你有多长时间没跟女孩说话了!大部分人,都会逐步活到没人搭理的份上,你可以做个测试:小你40岁的人,过去7天有多少人跟你对话?我要不想落到这步田地,If I do not want to live such a life, I have to have followers, instead of a son.






选自《当中国统治世界》,马丁·雅克Martin Jacques著


文科 英语

马丁·雅克Martin Jacques 当中国统治世界读书笔记

【1】毛时代打下的基础 Despite the disastrous violations and excesses of Mao, the foundations of China’s extraordinary transformation were laid during the Maoist era.

【2】烧纸钱 it won’t be long before you see people burning fake money as an offering to their ancestors

【3】清明上坟 At the Qing Ming Festival at the beginning of April, people return to their villages in huge numbers and spend the day at their ancestral graves

【4】中国的实践会产生中国的理论 China’s own practice,’ he concludes, ‘is capable of generating alternative concepts, theories, and more convincing frameworks.

【5】语言就是传统的化身 every living language is the embodiment of a tradition

【6】语言长城 Language was an obstacle to us going out, but it also prevented others getting inside. Language was our Great Wall

【7】英语 English has established itself as the dominant language of a global media whose influence and penetration is likely to continue to grow.

【8】开设汉语课程 Mandarin is being offered as an optional or compulsory language at schools in a growing number of countries

【9】传统根植于语言 The traditions are kept in the language

评论:花那么多篇幅讨论服装 waste so many pages to discuss clothes

文科 英语

马丁·雅克Martin Jacques 当中国统治世界读书笔记

【1】半殖民地 Although China was not colonized, in effect it became a semi-colony, with foreign troops free to roam its territory
foreign companies able to establish subsidiaries with barely any taxation or duties

【2】课程改革西方化 while the educational curriculum was revised after the turn of the century to include Western disciplines.

【3】中学为体,西学为用 Until around 1900 the idea of reform was virtually always articulated within a Confucian framework – with an insistence on the distinction between Chinese ‘essence’ and Western ‘method’ (or, in the famous phrase of Zhang Zhidong (1837–1909), ‘Chinese learning for the essential principles, Western learning for the practical applications’).

【4】孙中山手里没有军队 Sun Yat-sen’s Kuomintang (or Nationalist) Party was in a very weak situation, with no troops at its command or effective state apparatus at its disposal

【5】军阀割据 After Yuan’s death in 1916, the military governors that he had installed in the provinces quarrelled and shared out China between them, with the support of various foreign powers

【6】为什么没分裂 why did China, though chronically divided, never break up 第116页

【7】没有分裂势力 But in the vast heartlands of China no such movement for separatism or independence ever acquired any serious strength.

【8】殖民整个中国太难 China’s vastness made colonizing the whole of it, or even the majority of it, a huge task

【9】印度人不厌烦外国人 this was quite different from India, for example, which learnt to accommodate the presence of the British.

【10】没有失去自信 Despite everything, the Chinese never lost their inner sense of self-confi dence – or feeling of superiority – about their own history and civilization

【11】独立、统一 it restored the independence and unity of China.87 It was Mao’s greatest single achievement

【12】西化实验失败 it could imitate the Western model, an experiment which failed badly between 1911 and 1949

【13】文化大革命 during the Maoist era was the pretext for the many top-down mass mobilizations that eventually culminated in Mao’s own assault on the Communist state in the enormously destructive Cultural Revolution

【14】资助工业革命 a prosperous agrarian sector that could generate the surpluses needed to fund industrialization

【15】经济增长 China achieved an impressive annual growth rate of 4.4 per cent between 1950 and 1980,

文科 英语


【1】直到1850年,伦敦才取代北京 It was not until 1850, indeed, that London was to displace Beijing as the world’s largest city 第104页

【2】商人的地位呀 Although Chinese merchants did not enjoy the same kind of independent and privileged status that they did in Britain

【3】中央集权的帝国 After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Europe was never again to be ruled, notwithstanding the ambitions of Napoleon and Hitler, by an imperial regime with the capacity to exercise centralized control over more or less the entire continent.

【4】中国的精英阶层,读书做官 the Chinese elites were absorbed by and became effectively part of the state

【5】欧洲一直有权力制衡 In Europe, by contrast, autonomous, competing elites – nobles, clerics and burghers – fought to constrain the power of the state.

【6】职业划分没有转化成独立的权力 in China the functional differentiation into scholars, peasants, merchants and tradesmen did not translate into independent bases of power or institutionalized voices.

【7】军事生活 In comparison with Japan, indeed, the military remained strikingly absent from Chinese life – at least until the early twentieth century

【8】以德治国 The Chinese state saw moral instruction, among both the common people and the elites, as both desirable in itself and also as a means of exercising social control

【9】监控不满的苗头 The same can be said of the manner in which the Chinese state, as a matter of course, engaged in surveillance of the population – by registration and other means – in order to be better able to anticipate sources of dissatisfaction and potential unrest

【10】家族 These were huge extended kinship groups, which traced their origins back to a common male ancestor

【11】道德权威 its moral authority had been seriously undermined and was never restored.

【12】传教士 missionaries were given freedom to travel in the interior;

【13】在紫禁城驻军一年 then proceeded to base itself in the Forbidden City for over a year 第112页

文科 英语

马丁·雅克 Martin Jacques读书笔记

【1】终生在一家公司,这跟英美的情况很不一样 Lifetime employment, which still predominates in the large corporations, embodies a conception of obligation on the part of both the company and the employee that is quite different from the narrowly contractual – and often short term – nature of employment in the Anglo-American tradition.

【2】论资排辈 reflects the age-hierarchy of Japanese society

【3】日本人很反感使用法律 The Japanese, for example, are profoundly averse to the use of the law

【4】找不到北了 the country and its institutions, including its companies, quite simply lost their sense of direction.

【5】脱亚入欧 Japan combined its embrace of the West with a rejection of Asia.第89页
We do not have time to wait for the enlightenment of our neighbours so that we can work together towards the development of Asia. It is better for us to leave the ranks of Asian nations and cast our lot with civilized nations of the West.

【6】富国强兵 the national slogan ‘rich country, strong army’

【7】百年屈辱 China’s ‘century of humiliation had begun’第96页

【8】被同化 all invaders, bar the Mongols, once secure in power, sought to acquire the customs and values of the Chinese and to rule according to their principles and their institutions

【9】科举,四大发明 What is sometimes described as China’s Renaissance witnessed the development of a classical examination system, the birth of neo-Confucianism, the invention of gunpowder, mortars and woodblock printing,

【10】亚当斯密评中国 Adam Smith, who saw China as an exemplar of market-based development, observed in 1776 that ‘China is a much richer country than any part of Europe.’












文科 英语


【1】约瑟夫 E. 斯蒂格利茨,诺贝尔经济学奖

【2】of the people,for the people by the people三民主义对立面“Of the 1%, for the 1%, by the 1%,”第8页

【3】看不见的手有点瘸了that markets weren’t working the way they were supposed to, for they were obviously neither efficient nor stable。
Markets have clearly not been working in the way that their boosters claim.

【4】诺奖经济学得主批评美国经济体制America had created a marvelous economic machine, but evidently one that worked only for those at the top.第9页

【5】唱衰美国 But even more is at stake: as our economic system is seen to fail for most citizens, and as our political system seems to be captured by moneyed interests, confidence in our democracy and in our market economy will erode along with our global influence.

【6】有钱人家的孩子上好学校 But the system was stacked because wealthy parents sent their children to the best kindergartens, grade schools, and high schools, and those students had a far better chance of getting into the elite universities

【7】富不过三代是假命题 There is a corresponding myth—rags to riches in three generations—suggesting that those at the top have to work hard to stay there; if they don’t, they (or their descendants) quickly move down. But as chapter 1 will detail, this too is largely a myth, for the children of those at the top will, more likely than not, remain there 第11页

【8】给你工作,我拿大头 For years there was a deal between the top and the rest of our society that went something like this: we will provide you jobs and prosperity, and you will let us walk away with the bonuses.第12页

【9】一元一票 it seems that the political system is more akin to “one dollar one vote” than to “one person one vote.”

【10】是人而不是钱 for a democracy where people, not dollars, matter;第15页

文科 英语

when China rules the world 读书笔记

【1】现代化的速度越来越快 Each successive economic takeoff has got faster and faster, the process of modernization, with its attendant urbanization and rapid decline in agrarian employment, steadily accelerating.

【2】不是经济突飞猛进的关键因素 By 1800 Europe had accumulated various cultural assets, such as the rule of law and the beginnings of parliamentary government, but these were not the key to its economic breakthrough.

【3】别跟我俩扯犊子 If, in terms of economic growth, what distinguished Europe from China before 1800 was only its intensive use of coal and the existence of a vast American hinterland to Europe, then a lot of cultural baggage about inherent European political superiorities looks ready to be jettisoned.

【4】两个家庭的联姻 Thus, while marriage in the West is essentially a union of two individuals, in Chinese and Indian culture it involves the conjoining of two families.

【5】欧洲的崛起改变了游戏规则 The rise of Europe changed the rules of the game for everyone else.

【6】西方这个词,不仅仅是个地理概念 the term ‘West’, whose meaning is not simply geopolitical but more importantly cultural, racial and ethnic

【7】早晚要玩完 Western hegemony is neither a product of nature nor is it eternal. On the contrary, at some point it will come to an end.

【8】日本的校服都是一样的,不同的学校,不同的城市,一样的校服 All schoolchildren wear the same uniforms, irrespective of their school or city, the only variation being according to whether the pupil is at junior high or senior high

【9】这不就是路不拾遗吗 an economist at Keio University, explains: ‘Here you can leave your car outside in the street, even forget to lock it, and it will still be there in the morning.

【10】中国从来都是看考试成绩的 Unlike Chinese Confucianism, which valued educational excellence above all (the mandarins being products of a highly competitive examination system),第74页

【11】日本的教育体制 The education system introduced in 1873 was modeled on the French system of school districts.第77页